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 Fixers as Shadow “Public Servants”: A Case Study of

Fixers can thrive in any level of political, bureaucratic, or institutional development.Paradoxically the academic research of the phenomenon of fixers is in its infancy. There exists o accepted definition of fixers; the boundaries etween fixers and lobbyists remain murky,in terms of comparative administration only limited knowledge about the forces that breed different types of fixers in different political settings is available; and no deductive theory was rticulated that might determine when and how fixing might become dysfunctional and corruptive.In an attempt to better understand the phenomenon of fixers more theoretically; this study analyzes fixers in view of three theories of bureaucratic corruption, and in view of thee merging theory of alternative politics. Using Israel as a case in point, the study shows that within certain national and local branches of government fixers not only create a shadow copy of official institutions, but also foster institutional corruption.